This is the assignment page for the topic "The Triumph of the Reform Movement" for J. B. Owens's sections of the lower-division undergraduate course, History 101, Foundation of Western Civilization. The sole purpose of this page and all of the pages linked to it is to provide an orientation for those students enrolled in History 101.

You may return to the course main page or to the course syllabus.

The Triumph of the Reform Movement

ID: Concordat of Worms (1122), Crusades, Manzikert, 1071, Council of Clermont (1095), Pope Urban II (r. 1088-1099), "Song of Roland", Bernard of Clairvaux (1090-1153), Suger of St. Denis (ca. 1091-1152), Romanesque Style, Gothic Style, Peter Abelard (ca. 1079-1142), Sic et Non

  1. Why were the various Crusades (in the Iberian Peninsula, Sicily, the Middle East, and Eastern Europe) so successful between 1050 and 1250?
  2. Why did the creator of the "Song of Roland" make his warrior hero a candidate for Paradise?
  3. Why was Bernard of Clairvaux (1090-1153) able to gain such tremendous influence?
  4. Why did the religious ideas of Suger of St. Denis (ca. 1091-1152) become so important for Christian worship in the Central Middle Ages?
  5. Why did the Church in the Central Middle Ages invest so much of its scarce capital resources in building large places of worship?
  6. Why did Peter Abelard (ca. 1079-1142) feel that doctrinal issues were central to Church reform?
  7. Why did Pope Innocent III (r. 1198-1216) feel that he had sufficient authority to coerce the king of France through an interdict on the performance of the sacraments within the king's domains?


Kishlansky, 132-134, 144-147, 179-180 (on the Crusades), 150-151 and 194-195 (on Romanesque and Gothic architecture), 172-173 and 191 (on Thomas &agreve; Becket), 188-189 ("The Pinnacle of Papal Power"), 178 and 184 (on Bernard of Clairvaux), 184-185 (on Peter Abelard); Owens, ch. 6 ("Church Reform and the Struggle for European Cultural Leadership" from the section "Investiture Controversy Overview"); read the second part, "Edict of the Emperor Henry V," in the section, "The Concordat of Worms, 1122," at the URL: []; "Song of Roland" (selections) at the URL: []; Bernard of Clairvaux [1090-1153], "Apology," at the URL: []; Peter Abelard [ca. 1079-1142], Sic et Non, at the URL: []; Pope Innocent III [r. 1198-1216], "Interdict of France, 1200," at the URL: []. Be sure to make a photocopy of each of these online resources so that you will have it available for discussion in class.

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J. B. Owens
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Revised: 11 May 2006